Ethiopian and Constantinople Year Numbers

About the year 200 AD in Rome and Africa, Hippolytus of Rome and Julius Africanus declared 5500 years exactly occurred between the creation in Genesis and the birth of Christ, based on the Greek Bible, the Septuagint.

Click here for its many numeric discrepancies and "8 year Juggle" in birth year of Jesus.

Click here for Jerome's Commentary in 420 on Daniel's 70 weeks. He had just published the Latin Vulgate based on Hebrew, removing a 1466 year discrepancy.

Around 400, an Egyptian monk called Annianus fixed the Alexandrian Era (Anno Mundi i.e. the year of the cosmos) the date of Adam in the 7th month on Sunday 25 March 5492 BC. The twelfth 532 year-cycle of this era began on 25 March AD 361, 4×19 years after the Era of Martyrs in AD 284. After the 6th century AD, the era was used by Egyptian Ethiopian and Eritrean chronologists with their 532 year dates for Easter. It placed the date of the Annunciation to Mary in the 5500th year Sunday 25 March 8 AD (note there is no year zero).

In Constantinople (modern day Istanbul) the Annunciation to Mary was seen as coming 9 years earlier on 25 March 2 BC, and 5500 years after Adam and Eve's fall from grace. Creation was dated to August 5509 BC, now 16 years earlier than in Ethiopia, possibly a statement in Book of Jubilees (a Greek Hebrew book dated to c.100 BC) that Adam lived seven years "agelessly".

This calendar was introduced into Serbia where it apparently lasted until 1881. In Constantinople the calendar lasted until the Turks took the city in 1453. The calendar was introduced into Kievan Rus and Russia about 988, lasting until December 1699 when under Emperor Peter the Great 1st January 7208 became 1st January 1700. The official Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople followed suit shortly afterwards in 1728.

Back to Ethiopia. On 7th January 2023 (their Christmas day), they celebrated the "2015th birth year" of Christ, now the 7515th year of Adam. Note, the Ethiopian celebration of the Annunciation, called ‘Bisrate Gebriel’, occurs on December 31 (Tahisas 22) of the Ethiopian Calendar. Even though the actual date of the feast comes 9 months earlier, the fathers of the church (Archbishop Diocese) moved the feast to one week before Lidit (Christmas) because it would otherwise fall within the great fast before Easter (Lent).

Five other countries outside the west, including China

  1. China
    Like many countries in the east, although people follow the lunar calendar for birthdays and festivals, in government business the international "Gregorian" calendar is always used, with 1st January a public holiday. Introduced into China in 1912, and promoted extensively by Chairman Mao in 1949.
  2. Thailand
    Thailand introduced the Gregorian calendar with 1st January in 1889, but dated it back to 543BC, traditionally the year Buddha died, reached parinibbana, his final "nirvana". Thus 1st January 2023 is 2566.
  3. Iran
    In Iran, the fiscal year starts on the Spring Equinox i.e. Farvardin in Farsi, Mesha in Sanskrit, Aries in Greek astrology. Thus 21 March 2023 was Iran's New Year's Day 1402 AH (Year of "Hijri") the historic Flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina.

    In India's "Pisces" month 22 March commenced the month of Chaitra.

  4. Afghanistan
    In Afghanistan from 2011 to 2021, the fiscal year began on 1 Hamal (20 or 21 March) aligning with Iran's calendar. Following transfer of power to the Taliban administration in September 2021, Afghanistan abandoned Iran's Solar Hijri calendar in favour of the Lunar Hijri calendar. It restarted on 1 Muharram 1444 AH (30 July 2022).
  5. Nepal
    In Nepal the fiscal year starts on July 16 in the month of Shrawan.

    New Year's day is celebrated in the month of Baisakh on April 14 in 2023, which is in their year 2080.

    Widely used in Hindu and Buddhist astrology, it's the second month of the Indian national calendar, Chittirai in Tamil.

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** End of Report